Please note: all research articles open into new pages.
- Cork, Randall C. et al. The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology, 2004. Volume 8 Number 2.
- Kennerly, Richard. QEEG Analysis of Cranial Electrotherapy: A Pilot Study. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas.
- Smith, Ray B. The Use of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation In the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. The Original Internist, 9(3):25-28, September, 2002.
- Smith, Ray B. Microcurrent therapies: emerging theories of physiological information processing. NeuroRehabilitation, 17(1):3-7, 2002.
- Kirsch, Daniel L. Postmarketing survey of Alpha-Stim CES patients. Summarized here and presented in detail in the book The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation, 2nd Ed., Medical Scope Publishing Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2002.
- Tomaszek, David E., & Morehead, Kenneth.The use of CES in reducing pain in spinal pain patients. 2001.
- Kulkarni, Arun D. & Smith, Ray B. The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2(2):99-102, 2001.
- Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
- Smith, Ray B. Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective. American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2):62-66, 2001.
- Tyers, Steve and Smith, Ray B. A comparison of cranial electrotherapy stimulation alone or with chiropractic therapies in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The American Chiropractor, 23(2):39-41, 2001.
- Kirsch, Daniel L. & Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation, 14(2):85-94, 2000.
- Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K*, Bruce J*, Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and *University Medical Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA. The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.
- Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the Horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000.
- Tan, Gabriel, Monga, Trilok, and Thornby, John. Efficacy of microcurrent electrical stimulation on pain severity, psychological distress, and disability. American Journal of Pain Management, 10(1):35-44, 2000. Unedited abstract with rebuttal to the editor.
- Smith, Ray B. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of stress-related cognitive Dysfunction, with an eighteen month follow up. Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17(6):14-18, 1999.
- Dr. McClure, Ken Morehead, Ray Smith. A pilot study of the use of microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. October, 1999.
- Schroeder, Mark James. Acquisition and quantitative analyses of EEG during CES and concurrent use of CES and neurofeedback. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 Pages, 1999.
- Winick, Reid L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low-cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice. General Dentistry, 47(1):50-55, 1999.
- Overcash, Stephen J. A retrospective study to determine the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on patients suffering from anxiety disorders. American Journal of Electromedicine, 16(1):49-51, 1999.
- Heffernan, Michael. The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997.
- Heffernan, Michael. Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31(3):202-209, 1996.
- Heffernan, Michael. The effect of a single cranial electrotherapy stimulation on multiple stress measures. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 147:60-64, 1995. Presented at the Eighth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux Switzerland, February 1996.
- Voris, Marshall D., et. al., and Good, Shirley. Treating sexual offenders using cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Medical Scope Monthly, 3(11):14-18, 1996.
- Voris, Marshall D. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute, Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas, 1995.
- May, Brad, et. al. Pilot project using the Alpha-Stim 100 for drug and alcohol abuse. August, 1993.
- Smith, Ray B, et. al. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to block fear perception in phobic patients. Journal of Current Therapeutic Research, 51(2):249-253, 1992.
- King, GE, et al. Electrotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen: promising treatments for postradiation complications. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 62(3):331-334, 1989. Also published in the book, Emerging Electromagnetic Medicine, 283-289, edited by ME O'Conner, RHC Bentall and JC Monahan, Springer Verlag, New York, 1990.
- Brotman, Philip. Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the efficacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting reflex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986.
- Zimmerman, Stephen I, et. al. Biofeedback and electromedicine reduce the cycle of pain spasm pain in low back patients. Medical Electronics, 117:108-120, June 1989. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987.
- Boswell, NS. Neuroelectric therapy eliminates xerostomia during radiotherapy - A case history. Medical Electronics, 115:105-107, February, 1989.
- Overcash, Stephen J, et. al. The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and multisensory cognitive therapy on the personality and anxiety levels of substance abuse patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2):105-111, 1989.
- Madden, R, et. al. Low intensity electrostimulation improves human learning. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(2):41-45, 1987. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 95 pages, 1987. Presented at The New Brain Technologies and Accelerated Learning Conference at the University of Hawaii, April, 1987.
- Engelberg, M, et. al. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 95(10):1,167-1,173, 1985. Presented at the Meeting of the Southern Section of the American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, January, 1985.
- Nolan, FF. The effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on the orthodontic movement of teeth. Masters thesis, The University of Texas,
Health Science Center at Houston, Dental Branch, 49 pages, 1985.
- Boswell, NS, et. al. Noninvasive electrical stimulation for the treatment of radiotherapy side effects. American Journal of Electromedicine, 2(3), 1985. Presented at the International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer, Baltimore, Maryland, July, 1984.
- Gibson, Thomas H, et. al. Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology, 152 pages, 1983.
- Roth, Peter M, et. al. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for
controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986.
- Brovar, Alan. Cocaine Detoxification with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): A preliminary appraisal. International Electromedicine Institute Newsletter, 1(4), July/Aug, 1984. Also in Brain/Mind Bulletin, 9(14), August, 1984.
- Bauer, William. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Archives of Otolaryngology, 109(6):382-383, 1983.
- Bauer, William. Neuroelectric Medicine. Journal of Bioelectricity, 2(2&3):159-180, 1983.
- Lerner, Fred N, et. al. A doubleblind comparative study of microstimulation and placebo effect in short term treatment of the chronic back pain patient. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, 15(11):101-106, 1981.